Water is moved from a source or a water treatment plant to the people who use it through distribution systems. These systems are more important than ever before in an era of growing populations, increasing water demand, and dwindling resources.

Infrastructure is required for water distribution. This infrastructure might include everything from intricate pipe systems to small water jugs. Costs are linked with all infrastructure, from the most basic to the most complex. Furthermore, if sources are not properly secured and monitored, treatment facilities are not properly managed, or infrastructure is not properly maintained, water in any distribution system may become contaminated.

Distribution systems differ widely from culture to culture, from one economic strata to the next, and from major metropolis to small villages, despite the fact that they all serve the same essential function.